Chapter 1 Management and Organizations

2012-10-17 10:16:27   --   来源:中國經濟管理大學   --   浏览:12849
内容提要:中国经济管理大学


Chapter 1 Management and Organizations


In this introductory chapter, your students will explore the concepts of management, manager skills, and organizations in today’s dynamic business environment.

LEARNING OUTCOMES 

1.1 Explain why managers are important to organizations.
1.2 Tell who managers are and where they work.
1.3 Describe the functions, roles, and skills of managers.
1.4 Describe the factors that are reshaping and redefining the manager’s job.
1.5 Explain the value of studying management.

A MANAGER’S DILEMMA 

To illustrate the varied backgrounds, skills, and characteristics of successful managers, the opening case study, “A Manager’s Dilemma,” features Lisa Greene, the general manager of a restaurant in Springfield Missouri. The restaurant industry employees 12.7 million US workers, that’s a lot of greeters, cooks, server’s, and people who clean up after customers. It’s Lisa’s job to lead employees in this challenging industry where managers face long hours, tighter budgets, and expectations to keep business running smoothly.  The question at the end of this opening asks students to put themselves in Lisa’s place. This opening dilemma should be used to encourage discussion on the role of managers and the reality that the workplace and the expectation of managers are evolving.  You should find that many of your students have experience working in the restaurant industry and they have stories about the demanding nature of the industry, what is expected of them from their managers, and if they have served in a supervisory role what is expected of managers.

Chapter 1 continues with an examination of the functions of management, managerial roles and skills, the diverse nature of modern business organizations, and rewards and challenges offered by a career in management.
 

 


CHAPTER OUTLINE 

1.1 WHY ARE MANAGERS IMPORTANT?
 Managers have an important impact on both employees and the organizations in which they work.  The following three reasons address their importance:
A. Organizations need their managerial skills and abilities more than ever in these uncertain, complex, and chaotic times.
 B.  Managers are critical to getting things done.
C. Managers do matter to organizations!  According to a Gallup poll of ten’s of thousands of managers and employees, the relationship of manager to their employees and supervisors is single most important variable in employee productivity and loyalty.
1.2 WHO ARE MANAGERS AND WHERE DO THEY WORK?
Managers may not always be what we expect.  Today’s managers range from 18 to 80, they‘re found in a variety of different types of organizations, and they perform a variety of jobs from the top to the bottom of the organization.  By The Numbers shows some of the latest results of opinions of management.  Statistics also show an increasing number of women in management, however, while their number is increasing it is mostly in the area of lower and middle management, not top management. 
Who Is a Manager?
A. The changing nature of organizations and work often requires employees in formerly nonmanagerial jobs to perform managerial activities.  Students who are preparing for careers on any organizational level can benefit from acquiring management skills. Today’s employees need to be cross-trained and multiskilled.
C. How do we define a manager? A manager is someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organizational goals can be accomplished. However, keep in mind that managers may have additional work duties not related to coordinating the work of others.
D. Managers can be classified by their level in the organization, particularly in traditionally structured organizations—those shaped like a pyramid (see Exhibit 1-1).
1. First-line managers (often called supervisors) are located on the lowest level of management.
2. Middle managers include all levels of management between the first level and the top level of the organization.
3. Top managers include managers at or near the top of the organization who are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing plans and goals that affect the entire organization.
 
 
Where Do Managers Work?
A. An organization is a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose. Organizations share three common characteristics (See Exhibit 1-2): (1) each has a distinct purpose; (2) each is composed of people; and (3) each develops some deliberate structure so members can do their work.
B. Although these three characteristics are important in defining what an organization is, the concept of an organization is changing. These changes include: flexible work arrangements, employee work teams, open communication systems, and supplier alliances. Organizations are becoming more open, flexible, and responsive to changes.
 Future Vision The Working World in 2020

 While it’s impossible to accurately predict what the future holds for organizations, several experts predict trends to emerge.  In The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell sees several changes based on shifting demographics in the US population.  Pointing to increasing birthrates for minorities, Gladwell predicts that the majority (white) employee will become a minority in the next forty years.  This will lead to changes in hiring, selection, compensation and underlying assumptions about customers.


1.3 WHAT DO MANAGERS DO?
A. Management involves coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively.
1. Coordinating and overseeing the work of others is what distinguishes a managerial position from a nonmanagerial one.
2. Efficiency is getting the most output from the least amount of inputs in order to minimize resource costs.  Efficiency is often referred to as “doing things right” (see Exhibit 1-3).
3. Effectiveness is completing activities so that organizational goals are attained and is often described as “doing the right things” (see Exhibit 1-3).
B. Management Functions.
Henri Fayol, a French industrialist in the early 1900s, proposed that managers perform five management functions: POCCC (planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling).
1. Over time, Fayol’s five management functions have been reorganized into four functions, which provide a foundation for the organization of many current management textbooks (see Exhibit 1-4).
a. Planning involves defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving those goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities.
b. Organizing involves arranging and structuring work to accomplish the organization’s goals.
c. Leading involves working with and through people to accomplish organizational goals.
d. Controlling involves monitoring, comparing, and correcting work performance.
2. In practice, managing is not always performed in a sequence as outlined above. Since these four management functions are integrated into the activities of managers throughout the workday, they should be viewed as an ongoing process.

C. Management Roles.
Henry Mintzberg, a management researcher, conducted a precise study of managers at work. He concluded that managers perform 10 different roles, which are highly interrelated.
1. Management roles refer to specific categories of managerial behavior (see Exhibit 1-5).
a. Interpersonal roles include figurehead, leadership, and liaison activities.
b. Informational roles include monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson.
c. Decisional roles include entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator.
2. Follow up studies of Mintzberg’s role categories in different types of organizations and at different managerial levels within organizations generally support the idea that managers perform similar roles.
3. Although the functions approach represents the most useful way to describe the manager’s job, Mintzberg’s roles give additional insight into managers’ work. Some of the 10 roles do not fall clearly into one of the 4 functions, since all managers do some work that is not purely managerial.

Leader Who Made A Difference
Andrew Cherng and his wife Peggy founded Panda Express, a restaurant empire with more than 1,200 outlets and $1billion in sales.  Both he and his wife believe in the important role that their employees’ well-being plays in organizational success.  Mr. Cherng advocates five guiding values—being proactive, showing respect/-having a win-win attitude, pursuing growth, having great operations, and being giving—and a caring and strong management team, this company has prospered.

D. Management Skills.
Managers need certain skills to perform the challenging duties and activities associated with being a manager.
1. Robert L. Katz found through his research that managers need three essential skills (see Exhibit 1-6).
a. Technical skills are job-specific knowledge and techniques needed to proficiently perform specific tasks.
b. Human skills involve the ability to work well with other people individually and in a group.
c. Conceptual skills involve the ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract and complex situations.
d. Other skills are listed in Exhibit 1-7.  These skills will be highlighted in a feature at the end of each chapter
2. Developing management skills are important for aspiring managers.  To help aid students in this respect, the authors have put together several skill-building modules in mymanagementlab.  These skills reflect a broad cross-section of the important managerial activities that are elements of the four management functions.

1.4. HOW IS THE MANAGER’S JOB CHANGING?
Security threats, corporate ethics scandals, global economic and political uncertainties, and technological advancements should be discussed. While all managers will not have to manage under tragically demanding circumstances, how managers manage in today’s workplace is changing. Exhibit 1-8 highlights several important changes and how they impact a manager’s job

A. Importance of Customers to the Manager’s Job 
 With all of the technology available to managers, it is possible now more than ever to lose touch with customers.  Face to face contact is being replaced by e-mails and text messages. In a service oriented economy, like the United States, the need to deliver high quality customer service is the basis for competitiveness. As a result, many managers are re-discovering that importance of a customer-responsive organization where employees are friendly, courteous, accessible, and responsive to customer needs.
B. Importance of Innovation to the Manager’s Job
  “Nothing is more risky than not innovating.” All organizations innovate, however, a problem for organizations is working to get all employees involved in the innovation process.  Managers can respond to this need by creating a “team close,” a time when all employees are scheduled to close the store and leave together.  This helps create an attitude of working together and commitment.
C. Importance of Sustainability to the Manager’s Job
Today’s organizations agree that the time has come for managers to embrace both sustainability and green management. Sustainability has been defined as a company’s ability to achieve its business goals and increase long-term shareholder value by integrating economic, environmental, and social opportunities into its business strategies.  This view widens the concept of social responsibility to include twenty-first century environmental issues (i.e. the greening of management) and global societal challenges. 


1.5 WHY STUDY MANAGEMENT?
 The importance of studying management in today’s dynamic global environment can be explained by looking at the universality of management, the reality of work, and the rewards and challenges of being a manager.
A. The Universality of Management.
Without a doubt, management is needed in all types and sizes of organizations, at all organizational levels, and in all organizational work areas throughout the world. (See Exhibit 1-9)
1. We interact with organizations each day of our lives. Every product we use, every action we take, is provided by or affected by organizations. Well-managed organizations develop a loyal customer base, grow, and prosper.
2. Students who study management gain the ability to recognize and encourage good management practices; just as important, they learn to recognize poor management and how to correct it.


B. The Reality of Work.
After graduation, students will either manage or be managed. A course in management provides insight and understanding about behaviors of supervisors and the internal operations of organizations. An individual does not have to aspire to be a manager in order to benefit from taking a course in management.
C. Rewards and Challenges of Being a Manager (see Exhibit 1-10)
1. Challenges
a. Managers may have difficulty in effectively blending the knowledge, skills, ambitions, and experiences of a diverse group of employees.
b. A manager’s success typically is dependent on others’ work performance.
2. Rewards
a. Managers have an opportunity to create a work environment in which organizational members can do their work to the best of their ability and help the organization achieve its goals.
b. Managers often receive recognition and status in the organization and in the larger community; influence organizational outcomes; and receive appropriate compensation.
c. Knowing that their efforts, skills, and abilities are needed by the organization gives many managers great satisfaction.

LET’S GET REAL: MY RESPONSE
Lacy Martin
Banking Center Manager
Assistant Vice President
Commerce Bank
Springfield, MO

Cutting costs often results in negative feelings and reactions from employees.  By getting employees involved in the process, i.e. brainstorming solutions to deal with budget cuts, employees can be made to feel engaged in the solutions as opposed to having new rules and policies forced upon them.  Employee engagement will hopefully result in greater commitment to the decision and higher overall organizational commitment.

ANSWERS TO REVIEW AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 

1. How do managers differ from nonmanagerial employees?

The answer to this question used to be straightforward, but the line between managerial and nonmanagerial employees has blurred as more employees take on task once reserved for managers.  To keep the answer from becoming too complicated, the best way to address this question is to focus on the fact that a manager’s job is about helping others do their work.

2. Is your course instructor a manager? Discuss in terms of managerial functions, managerial roles, and skills.

 Course instructors (in contrast to individuals who hold positions such as department head) are not usually classified as managers. In most situations, a course instructor does not fall within the definition of a manager when utilizing managerial functions, mainly because students are clients rather than employees. In some cases, an instructor has little input about course content or how it is to be taught. In these instances, the instructor makes few managerial decisions.

In terms of managerial roles, course instructors may be involved in some ways in the interpersonal, informational, and decisional roles. For example, a course instructor could be seen as a liaison (interpersonal role), a monitor and disseminator (both informational roles), and a disturbance handler and negotiator (both decisional roles).

Regarding managerial skills, course instructors certainly need technical skills—knowledge about the latest research and conceptual developments in a particular discipline. They also need significant human skills as they interact with their students. To a limited extent, the instructor utilizes conceptual skills as courses are planned or as departmental curriculums are debated.

3. “The manager’s most basic responsibility is to focus people toward performance of work activities to achieve desired outcomes.” What’s your interpretation of this statement? Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not?

This statement means that a manager’s job or responsibility is to coordinate and/or focus subordinates’ energies toward performance outcomes that will result in the achievement of organizational goals. By definition, management is coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively. Therefore, most managers and management scholars would agree with this statement. Coordinating others’ work activities is what distinguishes a manager’s job from a nonmanagerial one.

4. Explain the universality of management concept. Does it still hold true in today’s world? Why or why not?

Management principles are needed for the efficient and effective operation of organizations, regardless of the level of the manager or the industry in which they operate.  This is true for today’s organizations now more than ever. The global environment of today ensures that organizations will face staunch competition. Failure and weakness on the part of management ultimately lead to loss of market share and organizational closure.  Also, gone are the days when managers could ‘bluff’ their way through their dealings with employees who have become more demanding and aware of their legal rights.

5. Is business management a profession? Why or why not? Do some external research in answering this question.

According to the Occupational Outlook Handbook published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, management is a profession.  In addition to the concept of an administrative manager, the Occupational Outlook Handbook list a variety of specific types of management positions, such as management analysts, management consultants,  management development specialist (such as human resource managers).  According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), administrative services managers held about 247,000 jobs in 2006 with 12% expected in the next ten years. The majority of jobs identified by the BLS, shows that about 65 percent worked in service-providing industries, including Federal, State, and local government; health care; finance and insurance; professional, scientific, and technical services; administrative and support services; and educational services, public and private. The remaining managers worked in wholesale and retail trade, in management of companies and enterprises, or in manufacturing.

6. Is there one best “style” of management? Why or why not?

No, there’s probably not one single “best” style of management. Organizational situations vary and what works best in one organization may not necessarily work best in another. Point out to students that they will find a variety of managerial “styles” illustrated throughout the textbook in different boxes, examples, and cases. Each individual tends to develop his or her own preferred “style” of managing.

7. Does the way that that contemporary organizations are structured appeal to you?  Why or why not?

Exhibit 1-10 lists some of the important differences between the traditional organization and the contemporary organization. These differences include flexible work arrangements, employee work teams, open communication systems, and supplier alliances. Organizations are becoming more open, flexible, and responsive to changes. Students should reflect on these new elements and defend their selections.

8. In today’s environment, which is more important to organizations—efficiency or effectiveness? Explain your choice.

Both are integral to effective management.  Management refers to the process of coordinating and integrating work activities so that they’re completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. Efficiency is getting the most output from the least amount of inputs, the goal of which is to minimize resource costs (see Exhibit 1-2). Effectiveness is completing activities so that organizational goals are attained; often described as “doing the right things” (see Exhibit 1-2).

9. Researchers at Harvard Business School have found that the most important managerial behaviors involve two fundamental things: enabling people to move forward in their work and treating them decently as human beings. What do you think of these two managerial behaviors? What are the implications for someone, like yourself, who is studying management?

Students vary in the degree to which they see businesses as entities that care and concern for their employees.  However, most managers realize that it is a manager’s jobs to develop an employee’s skill level and to make sure that they are also developing as individuals. Both of these practices, in the end, will increase an employee’s performance. Skills of job candidates have become important to employers because of today’s demanding and rapidly changing workplace and employees need to be self-motivated to constantly upgrade their skills and take on extra work outside of their own specific job area.  In addressing the implications of these behaviors with students, the discussion could include what happens when organizations treat their employees well or poorly.
 

10. “Management is undoubtedly one of humankind’s most important inventions.” Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not?

While most people do not see ‘management’ as an invention, it is safe to say that without the principles of management and the guidance of managers in organizations, we as a society would not have reached the level of development that we enjoy today.  The goal of management centers on the art of getting things done.  Without organizations and their managers, it would be impossible to accomplish what has been done in history so far.  It is has always been up to managers to coordinate and oversee work activities in the art of getting things done in the areas of agriculture, medicine, science, and manufacturing.


ETHICS DILEMMA 

While some may think that lying on a resume has little consequences, the results of several studies show that this type of behavior will, if found, result in job loss.  Students are asked several questions to get them to think about the consequences of lying about their academic credentials.

SKILLS EXERCISE:  DEVELOPING YOUR  POLITICAL SKILLS 

As referenced in Exhibit 1-7, there are many skills important to managers.  One important skill is their ability to understand and navigate political situations.  In this exercise students work on building their own political skills based on 4 steps: developing networking ability, working on gaining interpersonal influence, developing social astuteness, and being sincere.  Students are encouraged to take notes to track their progress and then to evaluate their own level of political skill development.

 


WORKING TOGETHER:  TEAM EXERCISE 

In groups of three to four individuals, students are asked to discuss their experience with both good and bad managers. Students should make a list of both good and bad management behaviors and relate these to the functions of management and which management skills they think it falls under.   After the groups develop their list, they should share with the rest of the class.


YOUR TURN TO BE A MANAGER 

• Use the most current Occupational Outlook Handbook (U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics) to research three different categories of managers. For each, prepare a bulleted list that describes the following: the nature of the work, training and other qualifications needed, earnings, and job outlook and projections data.

• Get in the habit of reading at least one current business periodical (Wall Street Journal, BusinessWeek, Fortune, Fast Company, Forbes, etc.). Keep a file of interesting information you find about managers or managing.

• Using current business periodicals, find 10 examples of managers you would describe as master managers. Write a paper describing these individuals as managers and why you feel they deserve this title.

• Steve’s and Mary’s suggested readings: Stephen P. Robbins, The Truth About Managing People, 2d ed. (Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2007); Gary Hamel, The Future of Management (Harvard Business School, 2007); Rod Wagner and James K. Harter, 12 Elements of Great Managing (Gallup Press, 2006); Marcus Buckingham, First Break All the Rules: What the World’s Greatest Managers Do Differently (Simon & Schuster, 1999); and Peter F. Drucker, The Executive in Action (Harper Business, 1985 and 1964).

• Interview two different managers and ask them at least three of the questions listed in the Let’s Get Real: Meet the Managers and Let’s Get Real: F2F boxes in the chapter. Type up the questions and their answers to turn in to your professor.

• Accountants and other professionals have certification programs to verify their skills, knowledge, and professionalism. What about managers? Two certification programs for managers are the Certified Manager (Institute of Certified Professional Managers) and the Certified Business Manager (Association of Professional in Business Management). Research each of these programs. Prepare a bulleted list of what each involves.

• In your own words, write down three things you learned in this chapter about being a good manager.

• If you’re involved in student organizations, volunteer for leadership roles or for projects where you can practice planning, organizing, leading, and controlling different projects and activities. You can also gain valuable experience by taking a leadership role in class team projects.

• Self-knowledge can be a powerful learning tool. Go to mymanagementlab and complete any of these self-assessment exercises: How Motivated Am I to Manage? How Well Do I Handle Ambiguity? How Confident Am I in My Abilities to Succeed? or What’s My Attitude Toward Achievement? Using the results of your assessments, identify personal strengths and improve your weaknesses.


ANSWERS TO CASE APPLICATION 1 QUESTIONS 

More than a Good Story

1. As the top managers of their company, what types of issues might Bert and John have to deal with? Be as specific as possible. Which management functions might be most important to them? Why?

Considering Bert and John’s success with the “Life is Good” cartoon characters, get students to explore the problems and difficulties that arise from growing a company based on a slogan as opposed to a tangible product that cannot be easily copied.  Get students to think about how difficult it is to stay true to a business philosophy and how companies strive to protect their competitive advantage from other firms who want to encroach upon their idea.  While all four functions of management are important, planning is particularly important in a company during its growth stage.

2. Using descriptions from the case, describe Bert and John’s managerial style. Would this approach work for other organizations? Why or why not?

Bert and John both play an active role in managing the company.  However, their style of management may not fit with what most people expect from a CEO.  As CEO’s, they have focused on expanding their company, however, they also appeal to the more spiritualistic side of work by bringing in their own philosophy of ‘life is good’ by encouraging involvement with charities and looking for employees that match their values in life.

3. How do you think the company’s motto “Do what you like. Like what you do” might affect how managers manage? Be specific.

This motto reflects on the concept that employees should be encouraged to match their own personal values with those of the company. Individuals are more committed to an organization when they feel there is a ‘fit’ between what they want from life and what the company want/expects from their employees.   Encourage students to think about how they either fit or do not fit with companies that they have worked for.

4. What managerial challenges might there be in having friends work for your business? How could these challenges be kept inconsequential?

In the past, management experts have advocated against managers having close personal relationships with their employees.  Difficulties often arise when managers are faced with disciplining or firing friends for inappropriate behaviors.  Impartiality is another consideration in that close friendships may make other employees feel like management would not distribute rewards equally among all employees. Clear policies and open communication are ways to resolve these problems.

5. Would you want to work for a company like this? Why or why not?

You will probably find that some students like the personal relationships and positive attitude of Bert and John while other students are put off by what they consider a lack of professionalism.  Get students to explore what type of company philosophy best fits with their own personal values.

6. In what ways would the Life is Good managers (corporate and retail store) have to deal with the challenges of customer service, innovation, and sustainability? Be specific in your description.

Keeping the product line and motto ‘Life is Good’ fresh and current will be a difficult challenge.  As competitors arise and products become oversaturated in the market, a major job for management will be coming up with new concept lines that are innovative but do not stray too from company’s core concept. Questions will also arise on the area of growth.  Currently they are a value added company, as they continue to grow, they may look to buy other clothing/novelty retailers or develop into other markets i.e. outdoor equipment.

 

ANSWERS TO CASE APPLICATION 2 QUESTIONS 


Flight Plans

1. Using the four functions as your guide, what challenges would Jeff Bourk face in managing the Branson Airport?

Students can go a variety of directions on this question. While managers are called upon to perform all the basic functions of management, planning, organizing, leading and controlling, most top managers and CEO’s focus on planning.  While Jeff wears many management hats, his biggest job is setting the strategy and mission of the airport. Students should note from the case introduction that the building of the nation’s first privately built airport took a lot of time to plan and there were many arrangements, i.e. the contract with the city that laid the foundation for future success.

2. Again, using the four functions as your guide, do you think the managerial challenges Jeff Bourk faced when getting the airport up and running are different from what he faces now in actually overseeing the airport’s operation? Explain.

As organizations move from the planning stage toward implementation, the other functions of management become important. Organizing employees to build the airport and then running the day to day operations i.e. scheduling employees, maintaining security, dealing with HR issues, takes much of a manager’s time.  Leading will also become more important as motivation of airport employees needs to be sustained.  Finally, control mechanisms need to be in place to ensure that the operations of the airport run smoothly and safety regulations are followed.

3. What management roles would Jeff Bourk be playing as he (a) negotiates new contracts with potential airlines, (b) works with the airport employees in providing a high level of customer service to arriving and departing passengers, and (c) resolves the contractual issues with the city of Branson? Be specific and explain your choices.

Similar to question 1 on managerial functions, managers will perform many roles in the course of their duties.  Evaluating this question in parts according to Mintzberg’s roles (a) is a liaison and/or negotiator role, (b) is a leader and/or disturbance handler role, (c) is a negotiator, liaison, and/or disturbance handler role.  Students may go for the obvious roles that hit on key works in the question or they could dig deeper to explore roles that might be important to address holistic approaches to solve these problems.

4. What skills would be most important to a manager like Jeff Bourk? Explain your choices.

Top managers rely greatly on conceptual and human skills to perform their job (refer to Exhibit 1-6).  While CEO’s may have relied upon their technical skills early in their career, their role as organizational leader dictates that they focus on establishing the goals and strategies of their organization.  As a CEO, Jeff’s main concern is the big picture (i.e. how to fund the venture, establishing contracts with airlines, and gaining community support.)  CEO’s can’t and should not be required to know all the technical details of the organization (i.e. the specific construction skills necessary to build airport buildings, food preparation, and baggage handling). Human relations skills are important at all levels, something that would be necessary when dealing with city officials and employee disputes.

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